Automobile lightweighting is a trend in the development of the automobile industry. Statistics show that every 1% of the weight of a car's general components can save 1% of fuel; every 1% of moving parts can save 2% of fuel, and the weight of the car can be greatly reduced. Environmental benefits. A variety of new materials are used in the automotive industry, of which aluminum is the most valuable.
Aluminum is the second largest metal material used by humans. Since the 1970s, one of the most obvious changes in the technology of cars has been the use of light materials in large quantities. More and more aluminum parts have appeared, mainly concentrated in the body. , engine, bumper, air conditioner, wheel hub, decorative parts, seat and so on.
The density of aluminum is only 1/3 of that of steel. Under the premise of ensuring that the quality and function of the car are not affected, the use of aluminum products can minimize the quality of parts to achieve energy saving and emission reduction targets. In the case of passenger cars, the weight ratio of aluminum alloy used in each vehicle in 1973 was 5.0%, which increased to 5.6% in 1980, and reached 9.6% in 1997. The rapid growth of the application of aluminum alloys in automobiles is a major trend in the development of automotive materials.
Due to the obvious light weight effect, the application of aluminum alloy on the body is expanding. At present, the United States, Japan, and Germany are the countries with the most aluminum alloys, such as the Volkswagen AudiA8, A2, Japan's NXS and other aluminum alloys. %. It has been shown that replacing the traditional steel structure with an aluminum alloy structure can reduce the quality of the vehicle by 30% to 40%, reduce the engine by 30%, and reduce the number of wheels by 50%
Application of aluminum alloy in automobiles
The aluminum alloy for automobile engine is most obvious in weight reduction, and generally can reduce weight by more than 30%. In addition, the cylinder block and the cylinder head of the engine require good thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance of the material, and the aluminum alloy is very prominent in these aspects. The advantages of the car manufacturers have been the development and development of engine aluminum.
Aluminum wheels have gradually replaced steel wheels because of their light weight, good heat dissipation and good appearance. In the past 10 years, the global aluminum alloy automobile hub has grown at an annual growth rate of 7.6%. According to the analysis, by 2010, the aluminization rate of automobile wheels can reach 72% to 78%.
Aluminum alloys are also widely used in other parts of automobiles. For example, General Motors uses the 7021 aluminum plate to manufacture the Smure car bumper reinforcement bracket, and Ford uses the 7021 aluminum plate to manufacture the Lincoln Town car bumper reinforcement bracket. The automotive suspension parts are also coated with aluminum alloy material, which effectively reduces the quality of the corresponding parts and improves the ride comfort and stability of the car, such as disc brake jaws and power transmission frames produced with 6061 forgings. In addition, aluminum alloy is also widely used in automotive air conditioning systems, such as Japan's 6595 aluminum alloy for automotive radiators and refrigerator radiators.